Mechanical Engineering: Research @ Brunel

Articles (co)authored by MAE Brunel staff

Below are recent articles (co-)authored by Brunel academic staff. Please click the title of the article to access the full-text.

  • The Evolving Role of Cryosurgery in Breast Cancer Management: A Comprehensive Review
    Cancers, Vol 15, No 17, Art No. 4272 (Sep 2023)
    Simple Summary Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the second leading cause of death among women, primarily due to the development of deadly metastases in 25-50% of patients, resulting in an unfavorable prognosis. Consequently, there is growing interest in exploring innovative therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes and enhance the quality of life for breast cancer patients. One such approach that shows promise is the application of ultra-low cryogenic temperatures through cryosurgery. This review aims to critically examine the current understanding and state-of-the-art practices of cryosurgery as a treatment for breast cancer, while also addressing the challenges and prospects associated with this approach. By conducting a comprehensive literature review, this paper intends to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective on the topic.Abstract Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer, accounting for approximately one in eight cancer diagnoses worldwide. In 2020, there were approximately 2.3 million new cases of breast cancer globally, resulting in around 685,000 deaths. Consequently, there is an ongoing need to develop innovative therapeutic approaches that can improve both clinical outcomes and patient quality of life. The use of ultra-low cryogenic temperatures, facilitated by cryogenic media such as liquid nitrogen, has revolutionized the biomedical field and opened up new possibilities for advanced clinical treatments, including cryosurgery. Cryosurgery has demonstrated its feasibility as a minimally invasive technique for destroying breast tumors and eliciting a significant antitumor immune response in the host. This feature sets cryosurgery apart from other ablative techniques. It has been shown to be well tolerated and effective, offering several advantages such as simplicity, the avoidance of general anesthesia, minimal pain, low morbidity, short recovery time, cost-effectiveness, and notably, improved aesthetic outcomes. The reviewed studies indicate that cryosurgery holds promise in the management of early-stage breast cancer and metastatic disease, especially in triple-negative and Her2-positive molecular subtypes in conjunction with checkpoint inhibitors and anti-Her2 antibodies, respectively. Furthermore, the effectiveness of cryosurgery in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ should be investigated as an alternative modality to surgery or surveillance. The minimally invasive nature of cryosurgery has the potential to significantly enhance the quality of life for patients.

  • Implementation of Deep Learning Models on an SoC-FPGA Device for Real-Time Music Genre Classification
    Faizan, M. et al.
    Technologies, Vol 11, No 4, Art No. 91 (Aug 2023)
    Deep neutral networks (DNNs) are complex machine learning models designed for decision-making tasks with high accuracy. However, DNNs require high computational power and memory, which limits such models to fitting on edge devices, resulting in unnecessary processing delays and high energy consumption. Graphical processing units (GPUs) offer reliable hardware acceleration, but their bulky sizes prevent their utilization in portable equipment. System-on-chip field programmable gated arrays (SoC-FPGAs) provide considerable computational power with low energy consumption, making them ideal for edge computing applications, owing to their innovative, flexible, and small design. In this paper, we implement a deep-learning-based music genre classification system on a SoC-FPGA board, evaluate the model's performance, and provide a comparative analysis across different platforms. Specifically, we compare the performance of long short-term memory (LSTM), convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and a hybrid model (CNN-LSTM) on an Intel Core i7-8550U by Intel Cooperation. The models are fed an acoustic feature called the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) for training and testing (inference). Then, by using the advanced Vitis AI tool, a deployable version of the model is generated. The experimental results show that the execution speed is increased by 80%, and the throughput rises four times when the CNN-based music genre classification system is implemented on SoC-FPGA.

  • Bubble growth on a smooth metallic surface at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure
    Mahmoud, M.M. et al
    International journal of heat and mass transfer, Vol 209, Art No. 124103 (Aug 2023)
    Bubble growth rate is one of the most important parameters required for the development of accurate mechanistic nucleate boiling heat transfer models. It is also very important for understanding the hydrodynamic forces and the mechanism of bubble departure. This paper presents an experimental study on bubble growth measurements in saturated pool boiling of deionized water on a plain copper surface at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure. The measurements were conducted using a high-speed, high-resolution camera with a microscopic lens. The mechanisms of bubble growth are discussed, while the microlayer evaporation mechanism has been evaluated and discussed using the measured bubble growth curve. The estimated contribution of microlayer evaporation to a single bubble growth is about 70 %, while the contribution of latent heat transfer (evaporation) to the total heat transfer rate from the surface is about 30 %. The remaining 70 % is due to other mechanisms, i.e. conduction and convection. These values were obtained based on the analysis of the bubble growth curve only and agreed with some researchers who conducted local heat transfer measurements using integrated sensors or infrared thermography. These detailed measurement techniques cannot be used with the thick copper block tested in the current study, which was also tested by many researchers in literature and is representative of industrially used surfaces. It was also found that the bubble departure mechanism at atmospheric pressure is due to a static balance between surface tension and buoyancy forces while at sub-atmospheric pressure, it was between buoyancy and liquid inertia forces. The pressure did not have a significant effect on the characteristics of the dynamic contact angle, which was also measured from the instantaneous images of the bubble. It was concluded also that the force balance required for the accurate prediction of departure diameter should be conducted when the two forces are equal, which occurred at time less than the departure time and dynamic contact angle of about 45. In most bubble departure models, researchers recommended the balance to be conducted at the moment of departure when the bubble forms a neck with contact angle of 90 0 (underestimation to the surface tension force). The analysis of one of the commonly used homogeneous growth models indicated that for homogeneous bubble growth models to be applicable in nucleate boiling, an allowance must be made for the fact that the degree of superheat varies with time during a bubble growth period.

Further information

Join us at Brunel