Referencing: Harvard examples and FAQs

Harvard referencing examples

Referencing books

Print and e-books can be referenced in the same way. For each reference, you should include the following information in the order given:

  • Author(s) / Editor(s) - surname first, followed by initial(s).
  • Year of publication in rounded brackets.
  • Title of the book in italics.
  • Edition – only if it is not the first.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher

Examples

One author:
Cottrell, S. (2011) Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

More than one author:
Moore, S., Neville, C., Murphy, M. and Connolly, C. (2010) The ultimate study skills handbook. Maidenhead: Open University Press

An edited work:
Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. (eds) (1987) Youth work. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Referencing chapters

For each reference, you should include the following information in the order given:

  • Author(s) of the chapter - surname first, followed by initial(s).
  • Year of publication in rounded brackets.
  • Title of the chapter enclosed in ‘single quote marks’
  • ‘in’ followed by the author(s) or editor(s) of the book
  • Title of the book in italics.
  • Edition – only if it is not the first.
  • Place of publication, followed by a colon
  • Publisher
  • ‘pp.’ followed by the page numbers of the chapter

Example

Smith, P.H. (1951) ‘The overall allocation of resources’, in Chester, D.N. (ed) Lessons of the British war economy. Westport: Greenwood Press, pp.34-57.

Referencing articles

Print and e-journal articles can be referenced in a similar way. For each reference, you should include the following information in the order given:

  • Author(s) of the article - surname first, followed by initial(s).
  • Year of publication in rounded brackets.
  • Title of article enclosed in ‘single quote marks’
  • Title of Journal in italics.
  • Volume (issue number), page numbers eg 7(4), pp.123-132
  • DOI - for e-journals only, if available. eg doi: 10.1080/13562510020029608.

Example

Jackson, S.J. and Hokowhitu, B. (2002) 'Sport, tribes and technology: the New Zealand All Blacks haka and the politics of identity', Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 26 (2), pp.125-139.

Loading ...

Q. How do I cite two different works by the same author in the same year?

If the same author has written two or more works in the same year, distinguish between them by adding a, b,…into the citation.

For example, your citations would read: (Smith, 2004a), and then (Smith, 2004b)

Similarly, your reference list would read:

Smith, A. (2004a) etc…

Smith, A. (2004b) etc...

Q. How should I reference the work of another author cited in something I've read?

For example, the book you have read is by Smith but cites work by Jones that you would like to use. If possible, always read the original work, in this example, by Jones.

Alternatively, you can reference the title by Smith; this is called a secondary reference.

Your citation would read: (Jones, 2001, cited in Smith, 2004, p.77).

Your reference at the end would use the details of the book you have read: Smith, A. (2004) etc…

Q. When should I include page numbers in my citation?

If you are referring to ideas expressed throughout a chapter or throughout a whole book/article, there is no need to include page numbers in your citation. Do add page numbers when:

  • making a direct quote
  • referring to an idea expressed on a particular page

Q. Do I have to list all the authors?

If a title is by more than three authors, your citation should list the first author followed by et al.

Your citation would read: (Smith, et al. 2004).

Your reference, however, should include all of the named authors.

Q. How do I reference something with no date?

If no date is given, more usually with webpages, use (no date).

Your citation would read: (Smith, no date)

Your reference would read: Smith, A. (no date) etc…

Q. Do in-text citations always have to go in brackets?

No. As long as the citation clearly refers to the relevant information you can put this in a way that works best for the sentence. Some examples are:

  • Smith (2002) argues …
  • In a recent study (Smith, 2002) …
  • Smith conducted his first study in 2002. He found that …